Antimicrobial resistance is a spontaneous phenomenon : A Part from The Book Chapter : A Narrative Review Examining the Impact of Clinical Pharmacist Intervention in Rational Antibiotic Use in Pediatric Patients

Antibiotic Use

The aim of clinical pharmacists comprises functions necessary to discharge a set of social responsibilities regarding the proper therapeutic use of drugs (prescribing, dispensing, and administration), documenting professional services, direct involvement with patients, review of drugs, and education consultation and counseling. The objective lies in ensuring the patient’s optimal well-being resulting from the safe and rational use of drugs. The goals are to effectively provide the appropriate maintenance of documentation related to medical incidents to maximize patient compliance with drug use. Antimicrobial resistance is a spontaneous phenomenon and many features influence its rise and spread. One of the chief factors of AMR threat is the irrational practice of antibiotics. The irrational practice of antibiotics involves prescribing incorrect doses, polypharmacy, self-medication practices, off-label use, inappropriate ROA, and overuse/abuse of antibiotics. These elements increase the exposure of bacteria to suboptimal levels of antibiotics resulting in therapeutic inefficiency and facilitating resistance against the drug. Irrational use of antibiotics has been evolving as a global threat to healthcare in escalating numbers in well-established countries. It is measured to be 80% in community settings of low- and middle-income countries that lack guidelines and principles. The outcomes are frequently associated with longer hospitalization, poorer health consequences, increased charge to patient/government, and increased mortality and spread. Several pieces of literature have described the incidence of irrational practice of antibiotics in industrialized countries. Southern and Eastern Europe have recorded 30% and 19% of irrational antibiotic use, respectively. Other studies conducted in the Southern province have reported similar results. Northern countries like Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, and the Netherlands have reported a prevalence of 3% and 6% in central countries. Recent study reports from Tanzania have observed 88.8% of irrational antibiotic purchases with more non-prescription use and incomplete dosage purchases and concluded a relatively higher prevalence.

Author(s) Details:

Mohammad Azeem,
Maternity and Children Hospital, Buraidah, Al Qaseem, KSA.

Pankaj Arora,
Lords University Alwar-Bhiwadi-Delhi Highway, Chikani, Alwar, Rajasthan, India.

Yousif Alosaily,
Maternity and Children Hospital, Buraidah, Al Qaseem, KSA.

Aifan Saad Alrsheedi,
Al Razi Medical Company Buraidah, Al Qaseem, KSA.

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