Gregarious Locust Species : A Part from the Book Chapter : Simulation of Favourable Habitats and Potential Spread for Non-gregarious Locust Pests for Preventive Measures in North Kazakhstan Based on Satellite Data

Locust Reproduction

As the current research results in this area show, SDM and ENM depend primarily on environmental factors, which include abiotic and biotic factors. Referring to the studies by Latchininsky and Sivanpillai, the vegetation cover (the normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) is given an important place as these factors and parameters since it is the fodder base of phytophages and meteorological parameters of the studied environment, which determines favorable habitat conditions for certain pest groups.

If consider studies in the field of ENM of locusts and phytophages in general are considered, great attention is paid to their global distribution to prevent invasions and mass reproduction on a global scale which is also a strategic issue of phytosanitary safety. At the same time, some works raise questions about improving the preventive pest management measures by ENM within countries and individual agricultural regions. Similar studies on locusts in Kazakhstan were conducted on gregarious locust species in their typical habitats.

Author(s) Details:

Kurmet Baibussenov
S. Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, 62 Zhenis Ave., 010011, Nur-Sultan, Republic of Kazakhstan.

Aigul Bekbayeva
S. Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, 62 Zhenis Ave., 010011, Nur-Sultan, Republic of

Valery Azhbenov
Zh. Zhyembaev Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Plant Protection and Quarantine, 1 Kultobe
Str., 050000, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan.

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Recent Global Research Developments in Factors Influencing Non-Gregarious Locust Reproduction in Northern Kazakhstan

Investigation of Factors Influencing Non-Gregarious Locust Reproduction in Northern Kazakhstan:

  • Researchers from S. Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University and Kazah National Agrarian Research University conducted a study on the phytosanitary state of agricultural land affected by non-gregarious locust pests in Northern Kazakhstan.
  • Non-gregarious locusts, being polyphagous pests, significantly impact economically important agricultural plants in this region.
  • The study analyzed long-term population dynamics of non-gregarious locusts and identified bioecological regularities and factors influencing their reproduction.
  • Key indicators included coefficients of dispersal, colonization, reproduction, progradation, and energy of dispersal and reproduction [1] .
  • These findings contribute to early forecasting and rational planning of plant protection measures.

Locust Phenotypes and Their Influence:

  • Locusts can develop into either gregarious and swarming or solitarious phenotypes based on environmental cues.
  • These phenotypes differ in behavior, morphology, and physiology, and their component traits can vary among species[2] .

Egg Production Differences in Migratory Locusts:

  • The migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) displays phase-related differences in egg production.
  • Solitarious locusts lay more eggs compared to gregarious ones, but the regulatory mechanism for this difference remains unclear [3].


  1. Baibussenov, K., Bekbaeva, A., Azhbenov, V., Yatsyuk, S., & Sarbaev, A. (2021). Investigation of factors influencing the reproduction of non-gregarious locust pests in northern Kazakhstan to substantiate the forecast of their number and planning of protective measures. OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences, 21(1), 144-153.
  2. Le Gall M, Overson R and Cease A (2019) A Global Review on Locusts (Orthoptera: Acrididae) and Their Interactions With Livestock Grazing Practices. Front. Ecol. Evol. 7:263. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2019.00263
  3. Zhao L, Guo W, Jiang F, He J, Liu H, Song J, et al. (2021) Phase-related differences in egg production of the migratory locust regulated by differential oosorption through microRNA-34 targeting activinβ. PLoS Genet 17(1): e1009174.

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