Rehabilitation Treatment of Parkinson’s Patients : A Part from the Book Chapter : Effectiveness of Complementary Therapy: Handheld Tai Chi with Water Ball for Middle-Aged and Advanced Parkinson’s Patients

Parkinson’s disease

The unique aspect of the training of the Tai Chi Water Resistance Fitness Ball is that it focuses on holistic mind-body harmony. By turning and pushing the sphere, the patient can adjust, balance and coordinate various parts of the body during movement, improving muscle flexibility and joint range of motion. At the same time, it can stimulate the function of the nervous system and improve the coordination and control ability of the brain. These comprehensive and coherent body movements and nervous system stimulation can help patients recover muscle function, reduce the symptoms of tremor and stiffness, and im- prove the flexibility and accuracy of action. Through this study, it can provide new ideas and methods for the rehabilitation treatment of Parkinson’s patients.

This study mainly used questionnaire survey and statistical methods. Firstly, a questionnaire on functional exercise compliance of patients with Parkinson’s dis- ease was compiled. The questionnaire dimensions and item pool were initially constructed, and the items were determined by the Delphi method, and the reliability and validity of the questionnaire were tested. Then, the status quo of functional exercise compliance in patients with Parkinson’s disease was investigated, including the collection of general data and functional exercise compliance scores. Finally, statistical methods were used to analyze the study results and explore the influencing factors of functional exercise compliance in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Through this study, we can comprehensively understand the status quo of functional exercise compliance in middle-aged and elderly patients with Parkinson’s disease, and provide the scientific basis for formulating intervention measures. In addition, as a new type of exercise, the handheld Tai Chi water-resistance fitness ball is worth further research and exploration on the influence of middle-aged and elderly patients with Parkinson’s disease. The results of this study have important practical significance for improving the compliance of functional exercise and improving the quality of life of middle-aged and elderly patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Author(s) Details:

He Huang
Independent Researcher, 2308 Ruth Ct, Rowland Heights, CA 91748, Los Angeles, USA.

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Recent Global Research Developments in Functional Exercise in Parkinson’s Disease

Umbrella Review on Physical Exercise and Its Effects:

  • An umbrella review published in PLOS ONE synthesized knowledge about the effects of physical exercise on people with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) based on systematic reviews [1].
  • The study included 139 systematic reviews and found that:
  • Motor outcomes were assessed in 91% of the studies, with balance being the most studied.
  • Non-motor outcomes were assessed in 68% of the studies, with emphasis on quality of life.
  • Physical exercises were classified into five categories: aerobic exercises, strength, combined, sensorimotor activities, and other activity protocols.
  • All exercise categories can be prescribed to improve balance and mobility.
  • Combined exercises, strength training, and specific activities improve both motor and non-motor outcomes.
  • Aerobic exercise and sensorimotor activities improve motor outcomes.
  • The evidence suggests that physical exercise impacts both motor and non-motor outcomes in people with PD.

Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis:

  • Another systematic review and network meta-analysis explored physical exercise for people with PD [2].
  • Although this review is not the most recent version, it provides valuable insights into exercise interventions for PD.

Effects of Group Exercise on Motor Function and Mobility:

  • PD is a neurodegenerative condition affecting motor function and mobility.
  • Group exercise has been studied as a potential intervention to improve motor symptoms and quality of life for people with PD [3].

Dual-Task Gait Training and Brain Reorganization:

  • A recent functional MRI study investigated dual-task gait/balance training in PD patients.
  • The study found that this training promotes functional reorganization of brain areas involved in motor control tasks and improves executive-attentive functioning skills [4].

Research Hotspots and Trends:

  • Research on exercise for PD patients is rapidly increasing, showing that exercise can significantly improve symptoms beyond what drug treatment achieves [5].


  1. Padilha C, Souza R, Grossl FS, Gauer APM, de Sá CA, Rodrigues-Junior SA (2023) Physical exercise and its effects on people with Parkinson’s disease: Umbrella review. PLoS ONE 18(11): e0293826.
  2. Ernst, M., Folkerts, A. K., Gollan, R., Lieker, E., Caro-Valenzuela, J., Adams, A., … & Kalbe, E. (2024). Physical exercise for people with Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and network meta‐analysis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4).
  3. Diana Palm, Alessandra Swarowsky, Mackenzie Gullickson, Holly Shilling, Mitch Wolden, Effects of Group Exercise on Motor Function and Mobility for Parkinson Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Physical Therapy, Volume 104, Issue 4, April 2024, pzae014,
  4. Leocadi, M., Canu, E., Sarasso, E. et al. Dual-task gait training improves cognition and resting-state functional connectivity in Parkinson’s disease with postural instability and gait disorders. J Neurol 271, 2031–2041 (2024).
  5. Chen, J. W., Du, S. H., Chen, T. C., & Zhu, K. (2022). Research hotspots and trends of exercise on Parkinson’s disease: a global bibliometric analysis from 2012 to 2021. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 16, 908049.

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