UV Wavelength is the Most Hazardous and Most Toxic : A Part from the Book Chapter : From Rays to Protection: How Sun Exposure Affects Our Skin and the Importance of Sunscreen

skin disorders

The Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Life

Solar light has a major environmental impact that is implicated in different skin disorders. The world solar spectrum is involved in (ultraviolet radiation and infrared wavelengths) that include skin cell damage. UV wavelength is the most hazardous and most toxic. The sun is beginning UVA (ultraviolet) origin with comparative terrestrial UVB content regard with 5-10%. UVA (315-400nm) through deep into the skin relative to 80% of UVA extends to the dermal–the epidermal junction and 10% of UVA reaches the hypodermis. UVA photons are less energetic than UVB causing indirect damage and increased generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Biomolecule attacks result in different types of DNA damage (DNA single-strand breaks, DNA inter stream cross-links, and involvement in nucleotide base modification) and production of lipids and oxidized fragments like lipid alkoxyl radicals aldehydes, alkanes, lipid (hydro peroxides and epoxides modified proteins and saccharides in an example of UVB is absorbed in epidermis 90%  in UVB is occupied by aromatic and based on DNA heterocyclic as conclude that UVB photons absorbed cyclobutene pyrimindine dimers and pyrimidine. Pyrimidine photoproducts are formed radiations act as amino acids such as tryptophan and tyrosine and interact with high energies and formed, 6-formylindol, carbazole (FICZ) has been acknowledging the importance, cellular signaling effect as amino acids modification. It can be divided between UVA and UVB is also UVB in RONS production as well skin cells are provided with different non-enzymes such as ascorbic acid, tocopherol, ubiquinol and glutathione (GSH) conclude in enzyme antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) glutathione peroxidase (GPX) that maintain the prooxidant /antioxidant balance by rapid RONS elimination, resulting in cell and tissue stabilization.

Author(s) Details:

Sabira Sultana
Department of Eastern Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan

Shafaq Naz
Department of Eastern Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan

Naheed Akhtar
Department of Pharmacy, University of Poonch Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

Musarrat Ijaz
Department of Pharmaceutics, Cadson College of Pharmacy, Kharian, Pakistan.

Sidra Huma
Bahawalpur Medical and Dental College, Bahawalpur College of Pharmacy (BMDC Complex), Pakistan.

Muhammad Shahzad Khan
Abbas Institute of Medical Sciences, GC University Faisalabad, Layyah Campus. Layyah 31200, Punjab, Pakistan

Rizwana Dilshad
Swedish College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Science, Rahim Yar Khan Campus, Pakistan.

Sumbal Tanveer
Riphah International University, Islamabad

Tamseela Shahzadi
Riphah International University, Islamabad

Muhammad Saleem Qureshi
Akbar Institute of Medical Sciences Bahawalpur, Pakistan

Also See : Karyotyping Findings Confirm the Diagnosis of Persistent Mullerian duct Syndrome. : A Part from The Book Chapter : Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome Presented as Male Infertility, a Case Report

Recent Global Research Developments in UV Radiation Effects on Human Skin and Health

Ribosome Roadblocks and UV Radiation Damage:

  • Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine found that UV radiation damages not only DNA but also messenger RNA (mRNA) [1].
  • mRNAs act as first responders, telling cells how to manage stress caused by UV exposure.
  • A critical protein called ZAK senses ribosome collisions on UV-damaged mRNAs, triggering a cellular response.
  • Understanding this process could shed light on skin cancer development.

Immune System Suppression and Skin Defense:

  • Overexposure to UV radiation may suppress the immune system and the skin’s natural defenses .
  • The skin’s defense against cancers and infections can be compromised.

Sunburn and Melanoma Risk:

  • UV exposure leading to sunburn plays a role in developing melanoma, a dangerous skin cancer .
  • UV rays can alter genes that suppress tumors, increasing the risk of skin cancer.

Chronic UV Exposure and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer:

  • Chronic UV exposure causes degenerative changes in cells, fibrous tissues, and blood vessels, leading to non-melanoma skin cancer  [2].


  1. UV radiation damage leads to ribosome roadblocks, causing early skin cell death
  2. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation’s effects on human health under the changing climate


Leave a Reply